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Russia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the current country. For other uses, see Russia (disambiguation). Russian Federation Capital (and largest city) Moscow 55°45′N 37°37′E Official language(s) Russian official throughout the country; 27 others co-official in various regions Ethnic groups (2002) 79.8% Russians 3.8% Tatars 2.0% Ukrainians 1.2% Bashkirs 1.1% Chuvashes 12.1% Others and Unspecified[1] Demonym Russian Government Federal semi-presidential republic - President Dmitry Medvedev - Prime Minister Vladimir Putin - Chairman of the Federation Council Valentina Matviyenko (UR) - Chairman of the State Duma Boris Gryzlov (UR) Legislature Federal Assembly - Upper House Federation Council - Lower House State Duma Formation - Rurik Dynasty 862 - Kievan Rus' 882 - Vladimir-Suzdal Rus' 1169 - Grand Duchy of Moscow 1283 - Tsardom of Russia 16 January 1547 - Russian Empire 22 October 1721 - Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic 7 November 1917 - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 10 December 1922 - Russian Federation 25 December 1991 Area - Total 17,075,400 km2 (1st) 6,592,800 sq mi - Water (%) 13[2] (including swamps) Population - 2010 census 142,905,208[3] - Density 8.3/km2 (217th) 21.5/sq mi GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate - Total $2.376 trillion[4] (6th) - Per capita $16,840[4] GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate - Total $1.894 trillion[4] (9th) - Per capita $13,542[4] Gini (2008) 42.3[5] (high) HDI (2010) 0.719[6] (high) (65th) Currency Ruble (RUB) Time zone (UTC+3 to +12 (exc. +5)) Date formats dd.mm.yyyy Drives on the right ISO 3166 code RU Internet TLD .ru, .su, .рф Calling code +7 Russia i/ˈrʌʃə/ or /ˈrʊʃə/ (Russian: Россия, tr. Rossiya, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijə] ( listen)), officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation[7] (Russian: Российская Федерация, tr. Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjə] ( listen)), is a country in northern Eurasia.[8] It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both via Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It also has maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, and the United States by the Bering Strait. At 17,075,400 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi), Russia is the largest country in the world, covering more than one eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area. Russia is also the eighth most populous nation with 143 million people.[3] It extends across the whole of northern Asia and 40% of Europe, spanning nine time zones and incorporating a wide range of environments and landforms. Russia has the world's largest reserves of mineral and energy resources.[9] It has the world's largest forest reserves and its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the world's fresh water.[10] The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD.[11] Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire,[12] beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium.[12] Kievan Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde.[13] The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde, and came to dominate the cultural and political legacy of Kievan Rus'. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland in Europe to Alaska in North America.[14][15] Following the Russian Revolution, Russia became the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first constitutionally socialist state and a recognized superpower,[16] which played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II.[17][18] The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human spaceflight. The Russian Federation was founded following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, but is recognized as the continuing legal personality of the Soviet state.[19] Modern-day Russia has the world's 9th largest economy by nominal GDP or the 6th largest by purchasing power parity, with the 5th largest nominal military budget. It is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.[20] Russia is a great power and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G8, G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Eurasian Economic Community, the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and is the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States.

© All rights reserved – Georg Behrendt
 
1a-Russia Data
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© All rights reserved – Georg Behrendt
 
St. Petersburg - 2008

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from St. Petersburg)
"Leningrad" redirects here. For other uses, see Leningrad (disambiguation).
This article is about the city in Russia. For other uses, see Saint Petersburg (disambiguation).
Saint Petersburg
Санкт-Петербург (Russian)
— Federal city —

Clockwise from top left: Saint Isaac's Cathedral rises over the city, Peter and Paul Fortress on Zayachy Island, Palace Square with the Alexander Column, Petergof, Nevsky Prospekt, and the Winter Palace

Coordinates: 59°57′N 30°19′ECoordinates: 59°57′N 30°19′E
Political status
Country Russia
Federal district Northwestern[1]
Economic region Northwestern[2]
Established May 27, 1703[3]
Federal city Day May 27[4]
Government (as of March 2010)
- Governor Georgy Poltavchenko (acting)
- Legislature Legislative Assembly
Statistics
Area[5]
- Total 1,439 km2 (555.6 sq mi)
Area rank 82nd
Population (2010 Census)[6]
- Total 4,848,700
- Rank 4th
- Density 3,369.49 /km2 (8,726.9 /sq mi)
Population (2002 Census)[7]
- Total 4,661,219
- Rank 4th
- Density 3,239.21 /km2 (8,389.5 /sq mi)
Time zone(s) MSD (UTC+04:00)[8]
ISO 3166-2 RU-SPE
License plates 78, 98, 178
Official languages Russian[9]
Saint Petersburg ALex russell(Russian: Санкт-Петербург, tr. Sankt-Peterburg, IPA: [ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk] ( listen)) is a city and a federal subject (a federal city) of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea. In 1914 the name of the city was changed to Petrograd (Russian: Петроград, IPA: [pʲɪtrɐˈgrat]), in 1924 to Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград, IPA: [lʲɪnʲɪnˈgrat]) and in 1991 back to Saint Petersburg.
In Russian literature and informal documents the "Saint" (Санкт-) is usually omitted, leaving Petersburg (Петербург, Peterburg). In common parlance Russians may drop "-burg" (-бург) as well, leaving only Peter (Питер, pronounced as "Piter"; IPA: [ˈpʲitʲɪr]).
Saint Petersburg was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 [O.S. 16 May] 1703. From 1713 to 1728 and from 1732 to 1918, Saint Petersburg was the Imperial capital of Russia. In 1918 the central government bodies moved from Saint Petersburg (then named Petrograd) to Moscow.[10] It is Russia's second largest city after Moscow with 4.8 million inhabitants. Saint Petersburg is a major European cultural centre, and an important Russian port on the Baltic Sea.
Saint Petersburg is often described as the most Western city of Russia.[11] Among cities of the world with over one million people, Saint Petersburg is the northernmost. The Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is also home to The Hermitage, the largest art museum in the world.[12] A large number of foreign consulates, international corporations, banks and other businesses are located in Saint Petersburg.

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